استخدامات الأفعال الناقصة

The use of modal verbs :

a- ability = be able to = capable to

He can speak English , but he can't write it.

b- permission : can I smoke in here

c- possibility theoretical or factual

e.g. theoretical : anybody can make mistake

e.g. factuality : the road can be blocked

could :

past ability : I never could play the banjo

2- present or future permission : could I smoke in here

3- present possibility ( theoretical or factual )

a- we could go to the concert

b- the road could be blocked

4- contingent possibility or ability in unreal conditionals sentences :

if we had money , we could buy a car


may \ might


1- permission you may borrow my car if you like = you are allowed

the negation of this sentence is : you mustn’t , you are not allowed to , you may not borrow my car

2- possibility ( usually factual )

the road may be blocked


might :


1- permission : might I smoke in here.

2- possibility – theoretical or factual

e.g. we might go to the concert ( theoretical )

what you say might be true ( factual )

shall :


1- willingness on the part of the speaker in 2nd and 3rd person ( restricted use )

e.g. he shall get his money , you shall do exactly as you wish

2- intention on the part of the speaker ( 1 st ) person

e.g. I shan't be long , we shall be back after one hour

3- insistence on the part of the speaker in the first person

e.g. you shall do what I say

4- legal and quasi legal : he shall be punished

the vendor shall maintain the equipment in good repair

should :


1- obligation and logical necessity : you should do as he say \ they should be home by now

2- putative use after certain expression : it is odd that you should say this to me

I am sorry that should have happened

3- contingent use in the first person only ( we + I )

in the main clause = would

e.g. we should \ would love to go abroad if we had the chance

4- in rather formal real condition

e.g. if you should change your mind , please let us know

will :


1- willingness in polite request

e.g. he will help you , if you ask him \ will you have another cup of tea?

2-intention ( usually contacted to 'll , mainly in the first person )

I 'll write as soon as I can \ we won' t stay longer more than 2 hours

3- insistence ( no contraction )

e.g. he will do it whatever you say

4- predication

a- specific predication : the game will \ must \ should be finished by now

b- timeless predication : oil will float \ floats on water

c- habitual predication : he will ( always ) talk for hours if you give him the chance

would :


1- willingness : would you excuse me ?

2- insistence : it is your own fault , you would take the baby with you

3- characteristic activity in the past ( used to )

e.g. he would go for along walk every day

4- contingent use in the main clause : he would smoke too much if you didn’t stop him.

5- probability : that would be his mother

must :


1- obligation : you must be back by 10 o'clock .

and to negation this sentence we do the following :

you need not to \ you don’t have to \ you are not obliged to \ …. Be back by 10 o'clock.


For past we say : yesterday you had to be back by 10 o'clock .

But for reported speech both ( had to and must ) are possible

2-logical necessity : there must be a mistake

negative : there can't be a mistake.

3- superficially interrogative but answer assuming sentence

e.g. mustn't there be another reason for his behavior?

Ought to : obligation – logical necessity : you ought to start at once


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